Disappearing Routine Occupations and Declining Prime-Age Labor Force ParticipationOctober 4, 2019
I study the effect of disappearing routine occupations on the decline in the labor force participation rate of prime-age individuals since the 1990s. I use multiple data sources and empirical models to study this relationship. First, I exploit state-level variation and show that the long-term trends of declining routine employment and prime-age labor force participation are highly correlated. Second, I narrow the geographic unit to local labor markets and quantify the causal effect of declining routine employment on the labor market outcomes of prime-age individuals. My results imply that the decline in routine employment was an important contributor to the declines in the labor force participation rate and employment-to-population ratio since the 1990s, especially for prime-age individuals without a bachelor's degree. Additionally, I show that the decline in routine employment was not limited to prime-age men in the manufacturing industries, but was observed across most major industries and affected women as well. More strikingly, disappearing routine employment had a larger negative effect on the labor force participation rate of prime-age women without a bachelor's degree than their male counterparts.
- Tüzemen, Didem. 2019. “Disappearing Routine Occupations and Declining Prime-Age Labor Force Participation.” Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, Research Working Paper no. 19-03, September. Available at https://doi.org/10.18651/RWP2019-03