Ying Lei Toh
Ying Lei Toh is an Economist in the Payments Strategies Division at the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City. Ms. Toh joined the Bank in 2018, after earning her Ph.D. in Economics at Toulouse School of Economics (TSE), France. She also holds a M.Sc. in Economics from TSE and a B.A. (with Honors) in Economics from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Her research focuses on the digital economy---particularly, the issues of consumer privacy, data protection and cyber‐security---and the payments market.
Economic Review Articles
- "Mobile Banking Use and Consumer Readiness to Benefit from Faster Payments"
with Fumiko Hayashi, First Quarter 2020
Other District Publications
- "How the COVID-19 Pandemic May Reshape the Digital Payments Landscape"
with Thao Tran, PSR Briefing, June 2020
- "Still on Trial? The Court’s Use of Economic Analysis in the American Express Case"
with Jesse Leigh Maniff, PSR Briefing, April 2020
- "Developments of QR Code-Based Mobile Payments in East Asia"
with Fumiko Hayashi and Terri Bradford, PSR Briefing, June 2019
Research Working Papers
- "Privacy Regulation and Quality Investment"
with Yassine Lefouili, RWP 19-05
Economic Bulletin (formerly "The Macro Bulletin")
- "Pandemic Relief Has Aided Low-Income Individuals: Evidence from Alternative Financial Services"
with Thao Tran, December 2020